Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician from 1777-1855.

According to Wikipedia, he was born to poor parents, in the town of Braunschweig. Braunschweig has about 247,000 citizens, making it about the same size as Canberra. There are no obvious sights in Braunschweig that I have found which are famous enough to use in a Google tour, unlike the Tower of Pisa for Fibonacci, for instance.

There is a great page on him at
http://www.math.rochester.edu/u/faculty/doug/UGpages/gauss.html

Also see the Gauss Wikipedia page.

Gauss is on the German 10 mark note.